Sunday, April 29, 2018

Making Lemmings on the ZX Spectrum Next

So..... I was thinking on the choices I've been making while writing Lemmings, to get where I have so far, and thought it might be nice to write it all down. I've been a huge fan of development diaries, ever since I was a teenager in fact. Reading Andrew Braybrook's development of Morpheus on the C64 in ZZap64 was the highlight of the month for me. I didn't just learn a lot from them, but I was inspired while reading them. So, here we go.....

When the ZX Spectrum Next was launched on Kickstarter I got really excited, I've always been a fan of the Spectrum, and the thought of a faster one with some extra "toys" get me unreasonably excited. I - like everyone else, watched the various videos Jim, Victor and Henrique posted and relished the possibilities that they presented. I really, really wanted to get in on the act as well. I tried to find a TBBlue board on ebay, only to find out, I'd just missed one, and as they don't come up very often, I figured I'd need to take another tack. I looked out my old Spectrum emulator and got it all working again - it was a little old, and then started to add in the hardware that was available on the TBBlue. I was able to get a hold of the sprite demo that was shown on one of the videos, and so decided to tackle that first. I decompiled it to examine it more easily, then realised I'd need an assembler...

Damn. Yet more tools work. I spent a few weeks adding a Z80 assembler to my SNasm assembler - which was mainly a 6502/65c02/65816 assembler. This required me to rejig things, and I spent a long time assembling a test file, and comparing it with the binary output of another assembler to validate the results. I could have used other tools/assemblers, but experience tells me it's worth investing in your own tools if you can afford to. Things usually end up going faster in the long run.

Once I had the sprite example in a state I could mess around with, I was able to get the sprite test running in my emulator.

After this I added hacked a Layer 2 bitmap demo by Jim Bagley, and commented so I could figure out how it all worked (you can see it here: ). Once I'd figured that all out, I added Layer 2 into CSpect, along with scrolling. Now I had a good solid base from which to actually start playing.

This has obviously been an on-going task, as hardware is added, I've been adding it into the emulator. I released it a while back as several folk would themselves in the same position as I was, and this meant the whole "write a game" thing kept getting put back.

Once the 28Mhz mode appeared, I suddenly started to wonder if it could actually handle Lemmings. Not like it did before with only 20 lemmings at a horrible frame rate, but a full blown Amiga style one running at full speed.. With Layer 2 and 256 colour stuff, it was possible to look like it, but moving around 256 colour graphics takes a lot of grunt and 28Mhz might just manage it.

I started by loading in a 320K bitmap into memory, and drawing it to the screen.

So.... this was promising. Using just the CPU it was copying the screen over at a reasonable rate, but I'd need to try and get some lemmings on screen first, to see how I really stood.

Before being able to do this, I first needed to get some graphics.... Now, this is where things get a little complicated. If I ever wanted to release this, then I'd have to come up with a way to get the graphics without actually distributing them. Sony owns Lemmings. There's no getting away from that. They do occasionally seem a little lax in chasing down folk using the old levels and graphics, but that's not something I wish to test - they have far more money than I do! I've seen web clones that have been around for over a decade now, a clone on the Windows store, some on iPhone versions, and a GameBoy DS homebrew version, but still.... if i can avoid that, I'd be much happier.

Still all that said.... I did see someone who made a clone take a different approach. They provided a tool that converted Windows Lemmings assets, into what he needed. This was ideal. it means people could buy the content legally, then convert it into what I needed, and I wouldn't ever need to ship with copyrighted content. Sweet.

Now, while I worked on the original, I have had no idea how Windows Lemmings works, or what the format of the files it uses. Fortunately, Windows Lemmings has been out for a while, and it's been hacked to bits, and documented pretty well over the years.

After much Googling, I eventually managed to find the various documents, and although they were a little tricky to follow at times I was all set. The sprite format had a funny compressed method, basically a byte-run compression variant and that took a little bit of time to figure out even using the docs. The code below shows what I ended up with, along with some examples of the compression. As you can see, it can start with a "skip" which helps move over the blank data at the start of a sprite scanline.

for (int y = 0; y < dataHeight; y++)
                int x = 0;
                // Basic compression
                //  0x84 0xAA 0xBB 0xCC 0xDD 0x80
                //  represents four bytes image data(AA, BB, CC, DD) starting at offset 0.
                //  0x03 0x85 0xAA 0xBB 0xCC 0xDD 0xEE 0x80
                //  represents 5 bytes image data(AA, BB, CC, DD, EE) starting at offset 3.
                //  Each line can have many "sub" lines
                //  05 84 30 2C 2C 2C ## 02 84 30 30 2C 2C 80
                // 7F 0B 94 1A 0B 18...
                // The offset here is not 0x7f, but 0x7f + 0x0b, the following 0x94 is the start character for a data line of 0x14 elements.
                while (buffer[_offset] != 0x80)
                    int len = buffer[_offset++];
                    if ((len & 0x80) == 0)
                        x += len;
                        len = buffer[_offset++];
                    if (len == 0x7f)
                        len += buffer[_offset++];
                    int counter = len & 0x7f;
                    while (counter > 0)
                        spr[x, y] = pal[buffer[_offset++]];

Still, I eventually got all this sussed out and was able to save out all the Lemmings into a usable format, including a sprite pointer table at the start of it. Here's more or less what was saved out.

Once i did that... it was now time to actually draw a lemming. This was done using one of the new Z80 instructions that have added to the Next: LDIX. This loads from (HL) and stores in (DE), but only if (HL) wasn't the same a what's in the A register. This new instruction is ideal for sprites, as it lets you drop out pixels on demand. As you see from above, I use Magenta/Pink as transparent so simply set A to be this colour, then I did a simple Z80 Y by X loop around one of these sprites and got the image below - the while bar is a timing bar, showing how fast (or slow) the function was.

So... this was disappointingly slow. A single Lemming was taking 5 scan lines to draw. Scale that up to 100, include some "loop" and processing time and we'd be looking at at least 2 frames (probably 3) to draw 100 lemmings. Since the Amiga version ran in 3 frames, this wasn't good news. I decided I needed to scale this up to get a better idea of where I stood with this, so I did a 100 lemming test next

As I suspected, this wasn't great news... so it was time for Plan B.

Wednesday, April 25, 2018

Brexit.... Lying, cheating and stealing a nations future.

With Brexit looming, and brexiteers continually telling remain voters to shut up and accept it, i thought I'd look back at what happened, and why I think we shouldn't shut up. I believe we were lied to, the broke election laws on spending, and data protection laws when targeting their ads. This doesn't leave much ground that they didn't act illegally in their bid to win the vote, yet for some reason, the vote is still valid. How can that be? This sends a clear message that you can do whatever you like to win, and there will be no repercussions.

If vote leave broke the law, then those running it, should be charged, and the vote should be invalid and run again. I keep hearing more and more that is just suspect about the vote, so I wanted to list the main points - more for myself than anything, so I can see just how bad/wrong/illegal the vote was, to list what exactly I though was shady about the Brexit vote in general, and how those who now claim are looking out for the best interests of us, are lying through their teeth.

  • The Brexit bus.This is a well known one. The £350 million figure was a work of fiction. It was known at the time, yet they never removed it, it remained a key point in their campaign and many voters claimed it was one of the key things that swayed their vote.
    It should be asked... why is anyone allowed to blatantly lie in any vote, and yet the vote is allowed to stand? This is election fraud of the highest order - surely?
  • Immigrants.
    Another well known one. The claims that they are a constant drain, stealing peoples jobs is a myth - no matter what Nigel Farage and his band of merry racists claim. Not only are farmers now struggling to hire people to help farm, pick crops and pack produce, but the NHS is struggling to maintain and recruit enough doctors and nurses to help save lives. Ironic since making the NHS better was a key claim of the leave campaign. At the end of the day, for someone to steal a job, it has to be one someone from the UK is willing to do, and it seems they aren't.
    There are now many EU companies getting ready to leave the UK so they can remain in the EU and benefit from EU trade deals.
  • Parliamentary Sovereignty
    This claim that the UK can't make it's own rules is rabble-rousing-rubbish. The UK only takes a tiny fraction of laws from the EU, but it's a "vote winner", so it's front page for the vote.
    But lets be clear.... the Government only want Parliamentary Sovereignty when it works for them. They want to reduce workers rights, remove the human rights act and allow surveillance on anyone or anything, and without the EU to counter that, they'll be able to push through whatever they like.
    As proof of their contempt for Parliamentary Sovereignty, the latest strikes on Syria were done while Parliamentary was in recess, so there wouldn't be a vote on it. Now, why would you do that if you wanted Parliamentary to be Sovereign? it's not about Sovereignty, it's about power, plain and simple.
  • Politicians that don't believe in Brexit.
    This is one that really annoys me. Those attempting to make Brexit happen, don't even believe in it. The Prime Minister spent the EU Referendum saying it would be a disaster, that the economic and safety of the UK would suffer, and that the Norther Ireland border was an impossible problem if we left. She now tries to say the complete opposite. Has she changed her mind? Or is she just doing whatever she can to cling to power? After the £1 Billion deal with the DUP to stay in power, I'd argue for the latter.
    She's not the only one either. Boris Johnson was writing prior to the vote why we should stay in, then decided then running the leave campaign that he thought would lose, would be a great springboard for higher office - if he ran a good campaign. Then he won. Watching the press conferences afterwards, Johnson and Gove talk to the press like a pair of naughty schoolboys, clearly crapping themselves and what they had done. Johnson immediately launches a PM bid, with Gove stabbing him in the back the only reason he pulls out. Gove claiming that in the past couple of weeks he'd come to realise Johnson wasn't the person to leave. This from a man who had known Johnson for 30 years. The truth being Gove wanted the position, and decided to stab Johnson in the back to get it. These are just the kinds of people we want running Brexit, basically doing whatever they can for themselves, and no one else
  • Deal would be "Easiest in human history"
    This was another laughable claim. Liam Fox claimed a post-Brexit free trade deal with the EU should be the “easiest in human history”. This was picked up by many politicians, claiming the EU couldn't do without our trade, and that any deal with them would be the simplest ever.
    This is of course a lie. It was't simply them being mistaken either, but an our right falsehood. With so many member states, no deal can ever be that simple.The ALL have to agree. On top of this, the EU pretty much holds all the cards. The UK government insisted that a trade deal must be worked on along with other issues, but the EU insistence that the divorce bill and EU residents status be discussed first, meant the UK had no choice by to fold and give them pretty much whatever they wanted.
  • Having our cake and eating it.
    The UK prior to the vote was also claiming they could get pretty much what ever they wanted. Free trade without freedom of movement, being outside the EU but getting "special" deals for the motor and finance industries. All of this was never going to happen. Why would the Eu give away any of this? From their perspective, any business that wanted to maintain these things, would move from the UK to another member state, and the EU would benefit. Why give the UK a special deal to keep something they wanted for themselves? How could you possibly persuade 27 other member states to agree to a "give away" of epic proportions.
    You can't. Simple as that, and they never would have. The EU said from day one, this was never going to happen.
  • Northern Ireland. 
    Theresa May pre-Brexit claimed it would be impossible to have Brexit and any kind of free movement across the Irish border. Now that she's supposed to be running it all, it's really simple, and of course it could happen. This is all about her just clinging to power.
    The EU have said, if the UK leaves, then there will have to be some kind of border. Between 2 different types of rules and regulations, you have to have a border.
    The UK Government have flip-flopped back and forth from saying Northern Ireland can stay in the customs union, to they can simply maintain the same laws/rules on goods, to saying technology will solve all the worlds problems. All of these are fantasy.
    As a Scot, what's particularly annoying is that the UK government has refused point blank to Scotland remaining in the customs union, yet to save their own hides, suggest N.Ireland can. Surely of they can, then so could Scotland? But they refuse to even discuss it.
  • Vote Leave broke spending limits
    So here's another one which is just outright illegal, and should also have invalidated the vote.
    An ex-employee of vote leave has said it "broke spending limits on industrial scale". These rules/laws are there for a reason, and by breaking them - along with using companies like Cambridge Analytics who use stolen data to target more ads at voters, means they reached more people than Remain. This makes for an unbalanced contest, and sure if you have twice the money (say) you'll reach more people and you'll be able to get a better result.
    So surely because they did this, it means the vote is in itself, illegal? How can it not be?
  • Scottish Independence Referendum
    Another one which, as a Scot, really pisses me off.
    The No camp told voters continuously that it was safer to remain part of the UK, that Scotland would never be able to join the EU, and we would have to say No in order to remain in the EU.
    This promise has clearly been broken.
    We were also told if we left, we couldn't use the pound, and the value of our savings and pensions would suffer. Well, again, thanks to Brexit, the pound has been smashed, and savings and investments have suffered anyway. In fact, a study has placed UK pensions as the worst in the developed world.
    Told we'd have no oil soon, so we'd need the rest of the UK to prop us up. Lots of new oil fields are being discovered, so again....bollocks.
    We were also told if we left, there would be no friction-less trade with the UK. Yet, this is precisely the argument the Brexit camp are using with the EU. In fact, I heard on an interview a UK minister say "Why wouldn't they want free trade with their nearest neighbour?", yet this was exactly what we were told would never happen if Scotland went independent.
    Huge numbers of new powers. They've given a few new powers over, but have kept some of the most significant - like immigration. In fact, The Minister of State for Immigration compared the whole of Scotland to an English county - to quote "I wouldn't grant any powers to the Scottish Government that I wouldn't grant to Lincolnshire county council", that's how little Westminster thinks of Scotland.
  • Biased press
    All you need to do is look at the BBC, and the main stream media and see that they've all been backing Leave for some time. Nigel Farage is never off the BBC, despite having never won a UK election. Why is he on? He speaks for no one.
    Owners of papers (like the Sun, Mirror, Daily Express etc) have also been pushing hard on Brexit because they'll have more power. These owners are all multimillionaires, many of them not living in the UK, but using their powers to push their own agenda. Who can forget "The Enemies of the People" headline when a legal challenge on parliamentary sovereignty was questioned? These papers will have more chance to bend the laws to what they want, if they can more easily influence their creation, and that will only happen with Brexit.
  • People didn't understand what they were voting for
    This is a personal one. I've had discussions with some people I know who voted to leave, and a lot of the time, they've either listened to the lies and fictions they were sold, or just didn't understand. One person who voted Leave, didn't understand why everything now had to change, and why it couldn't just stay the same. I was speechless at this - "Well, because you voted to leave...perhaps?".
    I've also heard folk complain that they'll now have longer immigration queues, and why do we have to have this? Well again.... no freedom of movement means....
    I think a large number of folk simply don't understand the complexities involved, and the banner headlines of £350 million a week, immigrants stealing YOUR job! The EU making our laws! It'll be easy to get a great deal - we'll get everything we want. All this kind of thing makes it seem like nothing was going to be a problem, and we'd have everything we have now - and more. Which is all rubbish obviously.
  • Jacob Rees-Mogg and his millionaire friends
    Jacob Rees-Mogg is a hard Brexit fan, he wants to cut the ties and leave now. no looking back. But all you need to do is look as were his money is, and you see why. His investments are highly suspect, including some banned Russian banks, and if the UK were to have a hard brexit, he will personally make millions out of it.
    This is another thing to remember, most of these big players - politicians, news papers etc. Everyone of them stands to gain hugely from it, and they don't give a toss if the average person in the street suffers for it. If you doubt that, then just look at what Conservative policies are doing to the average person just now. Foodbank usage is soaring as people struggle to put food on the table, and all Jacob Rees-Mogg has to say is that it's "rather uplifting". For those of you wondering, the correct response is "That's horrible, what can we do to help and stop it". But it's very much a case of "I'm okay, so I don't care".
  • Even the Government says it'll be a disaster
    The Government had a study done - one it tried to hide, because it stated in every possible case, everyone will be worse off. It ranges from just "slightly worse", to monumentally worse.
    They tried hard to bury this, but it eventually got out, and it makes for some disturbing reading. The EU vote was advisory, and that means, they should have said "Oh okay, the public would like us to look into leaving" the study....."okay, we looked. Turns out the UK will be much worse off if we do - here's the study, have a look. So, we thanks for your input, but we've decided it's not in the UKs best interest".
    Instead we constantly get.... they people voted to leave, so we're leaving.
    I'm pretty sure the people didn't vote the make rich people richer, and everyone else poorer, while at the same time removing a whole heap of rights.
  • The witch-hunt of immigrants
    There seems to be a thing, that appears to be taking back control, means "hunting down" anyone not born in the UK. There are cases of people who have been living here for decades, paying taxes, doing jobs we want them to do, and immigration is trying to get them deported. Not only that, but people who came here as very young kids, have lived here all their lives, and they are trying to deport them back to a country they many not even speak the language of.
    This is just evil. Can I have my loving, compassionate country back please?

One last interesting fact. The EU vote was "adversary", which means by definition many might have thought it didn't matter, and so may not have voted. This again calls into question how such a vote can be deemed to be "the peoples choice". In fact, only around 30-odd percent (can't remember  he exact number) of eligible voters, voted to leave. That's hardly the will of the people.
Also, part of the law stated that if "significant" changes in status or rights occurred, then a second vote would be required. This kind of means that by definition, any "final deal" needs a second vote. It's in the EU vote bill, and it hasn't been withdrawn, so it's still valid.

So.... I'm struggling to find something they said that IS true. Anyone?

Friday, April 20, 2018

Writing a ZX Spectrum Emulator in GameMaker Studio

So if you followed my last emulator series, you'll know that I built up a lot of caches of shapes (characters and sprites) on demand, and then drew them when required. This works great for old consoles, and computers with character map screens, because on the whole, games tend not to change character set images very often, just the actual character map screen, which referenced these images. Because these kinds of machines have pretty good hardware support, they don't have to resort to shifting bitmaps around, there are much easier ways of doing things.

On a ZX Spectrum however, we have a single bitmap screen, with no hardware support at all. This means as soon as a game scrolls, the whole screen changes, and you'd have to refresh the entire cache. Sure, there would be lots of games that worked just great - Manic Miner, Monty on the Run - single screen platformers for the most part, but nothing that scrolled.

Because of this it means you have to find a way of drawing the spectrum screen from scratch, every frame. A tall order. The spectrum has a resolution of 256x192, or 49,152 "dots". While it's a fair bet that theres more off than on, you would still have to check every pixel to see if you needed to plot anything. Another way of doing this would be to have 256 sprites, of 1x8 pixels in size, with the bits set correctly, then draw pixels 8 at a time. This means you'd be drawing 6,144 sprites - certainly doable, if it wasn't for the attribute map of course. For each 8x8 cell, the Spectrum can change the paper and ink colours (foreground and background), and that complicates things. While we could no doubt draw that number of sprites, it's an open question as to whether we could run the render loop fast enough - while emulating the machine at the same time.

So that as they say, was that. A bitmap screen means we can't do it the way I have been, so there was no real point in even trying.... Then I had a brainwave.... and it's one that I'm still considering the implications of on other emulators.

Sure, we can't render the screen pixel by pixel, but..............and how about this for radical.... so lets not try and cache a screen that changes all the time, but lets put the WHOLE of Spectrum RAM onto a texture, and give the GPU access to everything - and it can convert the actual, raw screen memory on the fly!

I'll let this just sink in a little.......... While you're thinking about that though, here's what a snapshot of ManicMiner looks like as a 256x256 texture (the 48K spectrum having a 64K address space, and where 256x256 = 65536). A spectrum screen is easy to get hold of from an .SNA file, as they are just a pure memory dump and the current register values. So if we take one of these snapshots, and put it onto a texture, this is what it looks like:

As tiny as this is, it really is the WHOLE the ZX Spectrum memory. You can see there are several bands to it, the top section with a thick while line under it, is the ROM (which isn't part of the SNA file, but I've added it), after that the area with spaces and rectangles is the actual screen, and the rest is the game. The Spectrums screen starts at 16384 ($4000 in hex) and is 6144 ($1800) bytes long - it can not be moved. The attribute screen follows it.

So... now that we have a snapshot loaded into a texture (or rather a surface), all we need to do to keep is to keep it it up to date. To do this whenever the spectrum emulation does a POKE() into memory, we also execute a draw_pixel_colour(...) onto the surface image. We plot the value as a grayscale so it's easy to visualise, but we certainly don't have to, we only need a single value. A surface texture like this is actually 4 times the memory we need (ARGB channels, each hold 64K of data). So... if we're going to do this, just how many times a frame will a spectrum need to update the surface? Can we even handle that?

Well, turns out not much - only a few thousand times a frame - probably even less than the cache regeneration on a bitmap game on the C64! And actually, we can refine this even more. Because as the screen is in a fixed location and a fixed size, we don't need to plot any point outside of the screen address range , and this cuts down the pixel requirements even more. First, lets look at how we get a snapshot onto the surface...

/// LoadSNA(filename)
var SNA = buffer_load(argument0);
var add=16384;
var count=0;

// RAM image starts at 27 bytes in....
for(var i=27;i<(49152+27);i++){
    var b = buffer_peek(SNA,i,buffer_u8);
    Poke( add++, b );
This loads a Spectrum .SNA file, and then copies it into memory using our Poke() command where poke is this....

You can see the address is broken up into an X,Y by using the lower 8 bits as X and the upper 8 bits as Y, and makes it very simple to access this "grid" of data. This now means as a game runs, the GPU "memory" will also be updated. Now comes the really fun part - how can the GPU use this data?

Before getting into decoding a spectrum screen, lets consider what the GPU has to work with. First, it'll get the two triangles we're drawing, and as part of this is the texture coordinates. These 0.0 to 1.0 UV coordinates tell us exactly where in the screen we are on U and V (or X and Y if you like). We then need to convert these 0.0 to 1.0 value into something that can use to access the screen memory. We know the screen RAM is 256x192, so we take the 0.0 to 1.0 value on U and multiply it by 256.0 giving us the X coordinate, and then take the 0.0 to 1.0 on V and multiply it by 192.0, giving us the Y coordinate. We'll then need to floor these as they will have fractions and we want whole values so we can get the actual pixel coordinate. This might sound pretty complicated, but it's pretty simple....

const vec2 Size = vec2(256.0,192.0);

void main()
   vec2 pos = floor( v_vTexcoord * Size );
This has now converted our UV's out of 0.0 to 1.0 texture space, and into 0 to 255, and 0 to 191 coordinate space giving us proper X and Y coordinates - much better. Now we need to work out the spectrum memory address, that is the address on the screen the UV's are pointing to. This now gets much more complicated... The spectrum screen address requires us to shuffle bits around, and that's very tricky in floating point. To do so, you have to use floor(), mod() and subtraction to isolate the parts you want, and then extract them.

The diagram above shows how to work out a byte address on the spectrum screen, and you can see from this that while the X coordinate is simply the lower 5 bits (0 to 31), the Y coordinate is split up all over the place. The 1 at the top is the base address 16384 = %0100000000000000 in binary being added on.

So first, how do we extract the bits? Well to get the top two bits of Y, we simply shift them down by 6 bits, or rather since this is floating point maths, we divide by 64.0, then floor() the result. This moves Y7_Y6 down into the the first two bits and the floor() removes the lower bits (which have now become fractions), where we can then scale them up to the correct location later. To get Y2_Y1_Y0, we use mod(8.0), as this gives us the remainder of a divide by 8 (or a shift right 3 if it were integer). Lastly, to get Y5_Y4_Y3, we subtract off the bits we extracted for Y7_Y6, divide by 8.0 and then floor() to remove the lower Y2_Y1_Y0. Once this is all done, we have the bits in a state where we can now reorder them. All this complicated explanation looks like this in code....

float y7_y6 = floor(yy/64.0);                   // upper 2 bits
float y2_y0 = mod(yy,8.0);                      // keep lowest 3 bits
float y5_y3 = floor((yy-(y7_y6*64.0))/8.0);     // middle 3 bits       
Which obviously looks much easier. Now we just have to use these to work out the index into the spectrum screen RAM, and then add on the base address, which we do like this....

float xx_byte = floor(pos.x/8.0); 
float address = 16384.0 + (xx_byte + (y7_y6*2048.0) + (y2_y0*256.0) + (y5_y3*32.0));    
The xx_byte gives us the byte index, rather than the pixel index, and we then simply add that on. But now, we have a value "address", which is the current address in the spectrum RAM we're interested in processing. Pretty sweet!

All we need to do now is write a Peek(address) function for the GPU to get the byte, and we do that by again splitting the X and Y values (as we did on the POKE() in GML), and re-scaling it all back into 0.0 to 1.0 space for a texture lookup.

const vec2 TextureSize = vec2(1.0/256.0,1.0/256.0);
float Peek(float _address)
    vec2 index = vec2( mod(_address,256.0), floor(_address/256.0 ) ) * TextureSize;
    return (texture2D( gm_BaseTexture, index )*255.0).r;
This will return us the byte of spectrum memory from the screen. If we just used this, we'd get a very blocky version of the screen - like this..

The reason it comes out blocky white rather than a grayscale (as you'd expect), is because our PEEK() routine returns a 0.0 to 255.0 number, and gl_FragColor expects 0.0 to 1.0 values, so it's being saturated down to 1.0 all the time. If we divided the value by 255.0, then we'd get an odd grey-scale version of this screen. However, this isn't what we're after so we'll move on....

Of course, once we have this the next part is to extract the bit we require (since a single byte of RAM is 8 bits). If you remember we removed the pixel index in favour of the byte index to calculate the address, but this time - we want only the bit value (0 to 7), and once we have this, we can extract the correct 0 or 1 from the byte of spectrum RAM - exciting stuff!

//  given a byte, and a bit number, return a 0 or 1 if its set/unset
float GetBit( float _value, float _bit)
    float scaler = pow(2.0, 7.0-_bit);
    return mod(floor(_value/scaler), 2.0);
This will extract the bit for us, and now we just need to call it....

float mem = GetBit( Peek(address) ,bit);
gl_FragColor = vec4(mem,mem,mem,1.0);
And this will now give us a fully black and white version of the spectrum screen - direct from it's RAM.

How cool is that!! Now that we have this, it's a small step to get the proper colours - the hard part, as they done. The attribute screen is much simpler, as it's just an X by Y grid of values - and no funny interleave. So this time, you just take the Y pixel position, divide if by 8floor() it, them multiply it by 32 and add on the X byte position, and you have an index into the attribute screen. Add on the base address, and you've got another value to PEEK() with.

You'll then have to split this value into two - ink and paper (which are 0 to 7 values), and while your at it - extract the flash (bit 7) and bright (bit 6) bits.

With this done, you can now lookup the colours - just like we did in the C64 emulator to get real ARGB values, and then depending on if we had a 0 to 1 pixel, use the paper or ink colours.

if( mem!=0.0){
   mem = ink_col;
   mem = paper_col;
With this done.... we finally have a real looking ZX Spectrum screen!

Now, there are a couple of extra bits to deal with, bright, flash and the border. We've already extracted the bright bit, so you can handle that easily enough, but flash needs an external input. The GPU has no way of doing "time", so the CPU will have to handle that, and pass in a 0 or 1 depending on the current flash state. You can either do this through constants, or you can pass in a value via a channel in the vertex colours. I opted to use the vertex colour because I also pass in the current border colour in this manner as well, so it works out pretty well.

Speaking of the border.... Because we deal with the spectrum screen in terms of 0 to 255 and 0 to 192, we can simply increase these values and do a screen size of 320x256. This gives us 32 pixels around the whole screen. We can easily detect this inside the shader once we've worked out the X and Y coordinate, and display the border colour when we're in that zone - like so...

// Top and bottom border?
if( yy<32.0 || yy>=224.0 )    
    gl_FragColor = GetColour( v_vColour.r*255.0 );
   // Side borders?
   if( xx<32.0 || xx>=288.0 )
        gl_FragColor = GetColour( v_vColour.r*255.0 );        
        // process screen...  
So unlike the C64 where I simply couldn't afford to draw the border, here the shader does everything, and it barely registers as a blip in the FPS. With the border added, we now have a fully functional ZX Spectrum screen, and after a frame of emulation, we can just draw it using a simple draw_surface(), surrounded by a shader.

Although... it doesn't quite end there..... Just like the C64 emulator, Spectrum programmers were sneaky, and as the raster draws the screen, they will update it, this means by the time the frame has finished, it's probably not the same as it would have looked if we drew it as we went. The game Cobra shows this pretty well...

The reason for the flicker, is because this programmer would draw things in such a way that it didn't flicker, and he didn't have to double buffer the screen, but in doing so, screen RAM at the end of the frame wasn't the final image displayed to the user. In order to get around this, I yet again draw the screen in chunks - 16 pixel high strips this time. I could do single line strips, but unless I'm doing Hires colour simulation (where the attributes are changed every line), I just don't need that, and games never did much of this because it consumed too much time. It should be noted that I could detect that the game has modified the attributes and then flush out a line at a time at that point, and that would allow me to "auto-swap" for Hires colour, but I'm not that fussed here.

So after every 16 scanlines emulated, I draw the next 16 lines on the screen. This works perfectly for my purposes, and makes Cobra look rock solid again.

So, there you go.... a somewhat different approach to displaying an emulated screen, but one that works increadibly well, especially for dynamically changing bitmap screens. I suspect if you did an Atari ST emulator, you could render the screen in much the same way. Anything with hardware assistance is more complicated, but as long as the GPU has access to the hardware registers, this would still work - but the shader might get increadibly large. A C64 shader dealing with sprites, characters and bitmaps - and all the funny modes they can do, would be very cool, but incredibly complex.